Indiana Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Workforce

Partner: Indiana Department of Homeland Security &
Indiana Department of Health (IDOH) 

Time Frame: January – December 2023

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Special Issues

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Supply, Demand & Distribution

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Policy Research & Tracking

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Data Collection & Information Management

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Occupational Regulation



As first responders, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are critical to providing access to emergency services. Despite the importance of these professionals in emergency responses, EMTs and paramedics face challenges such as low-wage, high turnover, and high physical stress. All these factors result in ongoing staffing shortages which, although widely known in Indiana, have until this point been unable to be confidently quantified at a granular level. Previous research has examined contributing factors and potential solutions to workforce shortages, but the extent and applicability of these findings have been limited due to the lack of information available on the EMS workforce. In light of this and on recommendation from the Governor’s Public Health Commission, IDHS and IDOH have partnered with The Bowen Center to conduct an evaluation of Indiana’s EMS Workforce.

This evaluation is multi-faceted and includes four parts:

  • SUSTAINABLE EMS WORKFORCE TRACKING FOR INDIANA: Development of a supplemental survey which will be administered to EMS workers at their license or certification renewal. This survey will allow Indiana to assess existing workforce gaps and put a sustainable tracking mechanism for the EMS workforce in place.
  • EMS WORKFORCE COUNTY-LEVEL NEEDS ASSESSMENT: Conducting a county-level EMS Workforce Needs Assessment to evaluate workforce supply and demand in geographic areas across the state
  • PIPELINE ASSESSMENT: This analysis will describe the EMS training system’s infrastructure in Indiana.
  • RETENTION ASSESSMENT: Evaluation of EMS workforce retention. This encompasses the retention of EMS trainees within the EMS workforce, retention of EMS workers in the health sector and understanding former EMS professionals who do not renew their license or certification.  


Final Report

Read the full report for the full assessment of Indiana’s EMS Workforce.